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Hey there…thanks for stopping by. Due to some family obligations I am temporarily not adding any new content. There are literally hundreds of articles to choose from in my archives, going all the way back to 2008. Please take a moment to look around, I am sure you will find stuff worth exploring.  I’ll be back soon with new content for you to enjoy.

PAU for NOW

TAKU

“The Early Days”

By Jim Bryan

In 1969 I was working out in Al Christensen’s gym in Winter Haven, Florida. A friend and sometime training partner, Dr. Craig Whitehead had recently placed third in the Mr. America contest. 1970 was supposed to be his year. We kept hearing about this young bodybuilder that was  outstanding. I didn’t pay much attention  because I had heard this stuff before, so I forgot about it. The Teen Mr. America was coming up and a young guy from our gym was considering entering. His name was Dennis Woods and he was a hard rock of muscularity. He had to be a natural 5%  body fat. A long story made short is a businessman from our gym decided to send Dennis to the contest. Al asked him to send me with Dennis, because of my experience. I would help Dennis get ready. Craig Whitehead found out we were going and had Al tell me to be on the lookout for the “KID”. The “KID” was Casey Viator. It was felt that he might be competition for the Mr. America, if he did well in the Teenage. I was to report back.

We got to York, Pa. And settled in our rooms. I was excited because to me this was the center of the training world as I knew it! That night we met some of the local girls and toured the town of York, Pa.  I found it odd that the girls knew nothing of Bob Hoffman or the York Barbell Club. They didn’t even know about the Teen Age Mr. America Contest! We forgave them. Uh huh! The next day we headed straight for the York Hall of Fame. I was expecting this great place and nice gym that was world famous, hold that thought. We got there and talked to an older woman that was in charge of the place. She hadn’t a clue. Didn’t know about the Teen Mr. America contest, never heard of it. We paid our money to get in the Hall of Fame. It wasn’t big but it was inspiring, especially the life sized statue of John Grimek. The gym itself was very small, with little to no equipment. That’s right, zilch! We went to the shipping department and one of us bought a lifting belt. We were in the lobby talking and the phone rang. The lady was talking to someone “ No I don’t anything about the contest” I heard her say. She asked me to talk to the man on the phone. Guess who it was? It was Arthur Jones, the most important man in modern exercise. I didn’t know it then though. We talked and I told him where the contest was and what time the pre-judging was to be. He said he was bringing Casey Viator. Remember him? The “KID”. Arthur told me how fantastic Casey was, and I told him about Craig. Arthur was tickled to hear about the fact I was to report back. Actually, I wasn’t expecting much out of Casey. We had some good bodybuilder’s back in Florida. Jim Haislop, Frank Zane, Ivor Butcher, John Schliker, Bill Hilton, Craig Whitehead, Harry Smith, Bob Harrington, Robby Robinson, Bill Lemacks, and Dennis Woods. You get the idea. Show me!


Frank Zane

We get to the pre-judging and wait. Arthur said he would meet us there with the “KID”. We looked at the competitors and tried to figure who was who.


Joe Abbenda

I remember Joe Abbenda was there, I think he had just won the Mr. “U”. All of a sudden everyone moved forward and started talking. I heard someone say it was Casey. I leaned back against the wall waiting for a glimpse. I saw who everyone was fussing over. He wasn’t very tall. He was wearing dress pants and a xxx short sleeve sport shirt. The sleeves were past his elbows, he did fill it out but you couldn’t tell much. To me he looked like a fat bodybuilder that missed his peak. The shirt wasn’t tucked in so he just looked fat. I noticed a man standing off to the side watching me. He was dressed in a sport coat, I’m not sure if he was wearing a tie. He looked like he hadn’t slept in a week. If he was sleeping, it must have been in his car. He had a way of looking straight through you. Very intense. I walked over to him and asked if he was Arthur Jones, and he said yes. We talked a bit and got separated for a while. I helped Dennis get his things together and waited. Arthur asked if I wanted to meet Casey. I said OK  We went into the pre-judging room and waited for Casey to find us. He came out wearing posing trunks and a sweatshirt. Fat kid my ass! He had the biggest, most muscular, most powerful looking legs I had ever seen. Arthur introduced us and Casey went back stage. Arthur asked me what I thought. I told him if Casey’s upper body looked ANYTHING like his legs, Craig Whitehead was looking at # 2 at the seniors. The pre-judging started and they kicked us out. Yes, Arthur too. (I bet that was the last time he ever was asked to leave.)


Arthur Jones

Arthur and I left and went to the coffee shop upstairs. Arthur bought us something to drink. He was always generous to me. We started to talk. Next thing I knew, I was starting to feel like the dumbest s.o.b. that ever picked up a barbell. Arthur would ask me a question, I would answer and he would point out what an idiot I was. I think he even called me an Idiot. Several times! After about two hours of this I was ready to split. The other people in the shop were getting uncomfortable hearing him yell at me. I excused myself and went back to the room and took a nap, boy I felt stupid! I found out later that he was pissed because I left.

That night the main show was on. I saw Arthur again, helped get Dennis ready and went to watch the show. Casey won the title and ALL body parts except abs, he should have won that too. He was un-frickin believable! I think Casey weighed 210 lbs. Or so, At about five foot six or seven.


Casey Viator

Later on Arthur and Joe Abbenda had some words. Arthur made the statement that Casey would be 225 by the Mr. A. Contest. Joe said that was impossible, “Casey would be fat at that weight.” Arthur said he’d be even leaner then. You see, Joe always had trouble with fat around his waist, I guess he thought Casey would too. He basically said Arthur was full of shit. Guess who was right? Arthur, of course. Casey did win the Mr. America, the youngest so far, and at 225.

Before we left Arthur invited me to Lake Helen (to Deland High School gym) to train with him. Nautilus hadn’t started yet and all he had thus far was the pullover machine and many revolutionary ideas. Ideas that would change training forever. Arthur was the most important man in modern exercise history.

I saw Arthur again at a National powerlifting meet in Winter Park, Florida. I was asked to judge by my friend Mike Stone. When I ran into Arthur he was screwing up the heads of some of the muscle guys there. He would measure their arms hanging down and then measure them flexed. There was very little difference in the two measurements for most of the ones being measured. They wanted to know why? Arthur told them it was because “you can’t flex fat!” That’s the way Arthur was. He told you straight out.

I figured out that I liked him, my soon to be wife wasn’t sure. He also had a picture of Casey (before Mr. A.) He said Casey was very close to 225 lbs. He was HUGE! I knew then that Arthur had something that I wanted to learn. He invited me again and I accepted.

In the meantime I sent two guys from the gym up to see Arthur. They trained under Arthur and heaved up just outside the Deland High School gym’s door, and fell to the ground for about a half hour. They came back to our gym after resting for a few days. One was convinced and showed me what they had learned. The other hated Arthur and never went back. I knew then I had to go. That weekend My future wife and I went to see Arthur again.


Sergio Oliva

I went through the most pain I had ever endured in a weight room. It took about 30 minutes and I was dead. Even Arthur’s yelling couldn’t get the dead man (me) to move. He insulted me, questioned my manhood, and made fun of me. You know what?  He could get momentary muscular failure, maximum inroad, or whatever the hell you want to call it, like no one else. He wouldn’t let you quit! I was dizzy as hell and Casey and Dan Howard pushed and pulled me to each exercise. My Wife just stared in horror! I drove back to Arthur’s house in my Datsun 2000 and my wife sat in Arthur’s lap. Hell I didn’t care, I could barely see or move.

 TAKU’s NOTE: Thanks to Jim Bryan for sharing some of his experiences from the original days of Nautilus, Arthur Jones, and Casey Viator.

The Passing of a HERO:

I just got the very sad news that we have lost one of the greatest bodybuilders of all time. Casey Viator has passed away at the age of 62.  Casey is famous for his incredible strength. His workouts are the stuff of legend. He was unequaled in both his focus and intensity while training.  Among his many accomplishments Casey is perhaps best known for his participation in the Colorado Experiment. During this well documented, and highly supervised training regimen, Casey underwent perhaps the most dramatic body transformation that has ever occurred.

Later in his life Casey still coached others doing seminars, working with athletes one-on-one as well as acting as a consultant through his web-site, training videos, and a self published book.

Today is a sad day indeed for those of us in the Strength and Fitness world. Please join me and take a moment to remember this amazing man.

PAU for NOW

TAKU

Balanced training or Training for balance

No_BOSU

By TAKU

I’ve been working as a trainer for 25 years now. Back when I first started, I learned quickly that strength was, and is the most important quality we can cultivate. Strength training using evidence based exercise concepts is the safest, and most efficient method to impact global health and fitness in minimal time. As I have said before, strength is the foundation of function.

As a strength coach and personal trainer, the question of training for balance often comes up. Athletes often want to know if there is an exercise that they can do that will improve their balance in their chosen sport. For average fitness folks the balance question most often arises as it relates to aging and maintaining mobility.

Many coaches and trainers on the “Balance Training” Band-Wagon claim that functional exercises should be performed on an unstable surface, in order to promote  balance. This is a very common approach to training equilibrium, whereby the emphasis is placed on proprioceptive sensitivity and core stability. While it seems, superficially, to be an obvious method of choice, it is actually counterproductive to real functional stability. The irony in these methods is that the property that is introduced to try to enhance balance control — an unstable surface — is the very element that prevents the nervous system from correcting for postural deviations.

Stay with me here…

Equilibrium is maintained through the application of force into the ground. As the center of gravity shifts over the base of support, force is applied through the feet in order to re-center the center of gravity. The inherent problem with labile surfaces (wobble boards, dyna-discs etc) is that the objective of the exercise is to avoid displacing the surface. In other words, the goal is to keep the surface from moving. To do this, the subject must actually resist applying force to the surface, and therefore, is being trained not to exert force which is the exact opposite of what you are trying to accomplish. Clearly this practice would have a dubious effect on balance control.

(LIGHT-BULB!!)

Furthermore, this type of balance training involves static balance control, in which motion of the center of gravity is severely restricted. Hamilton and colleagues (2008), quite interestingly, report no correlation between static balance control and hopping capability, a very dynamic stability problem, and one of those “highly functional” movement skills.

What does seem to aid in balance control is increased muscular strength and power. Research demonstrates evidence of a direct correlation between muscular strength and power, and the ability to maintain balance (Orr, et al, 2006, Santos and Liu, 2008). Butler and associates (2008) have even determined that insufficient strength in the ankle musculature results in a reduction of proprioceptive acuity. Conversely, increased muscle force capacity contributes to enhanced proprioceptive capability. Arguably, equilibrium may be enhanced through a simple process of muscle strength development that promotes force application. This may, in fact, be accomplished on a leg press.

The truth is that balance is task specific. A common misconception is that fundamental abilities can be trained through various drills or other activities. The thinking is that, with some stronger ability, the athlete will see gains in performance for tasks with this underlying ability.

For example, coaches often use various balancing drills to increase general balancing ability. Such attempts to train fundamental abilities may sound fine, but usually they simply do not work. Time, and often money, would be better spent practicing the eventual goal skills.

There are two correct ways to think of these principles.

First, there is no general ability to balance, rather, balance is based on many diverse abilities, so there is no single balance ability, for example, that can be trained.

Second, even if there were such general abilities, these are, by definition, genetic and not subject to modification through practice. Therefore, attempts to modify ability with a nonspecific drill are ineffective. A learner may acquire additional skill at the drill (which is, after all, a skill itself), but this learning does not transfer to the main skill of interest.

Do not attempt to mimic or imitate a skill by using a completely separate *gadget, or with exercises in the weight room. It can’t be done. Strengthen the muscles in the weight room, develop a high level of conditioning, and practice the skills used to play your sport or game. It’s that simple!

PAU for NOW

TAKU

*In Plain English: (Just in case I have not been 100% clear up to this point). You should never waste any time or energy doing any of the things demonstrated in the  images above if your goal is to improve performance in a totally separate sport or activity.

Excerpts from this article appear (with permission) from the article:

The Truth on Fitness:
Functional training
Paul M. Juris, Ed.D.
Executive Director, CybEx Institute

Other References

Bryant, C.X. (2008) What is functional strength training?
American Council on Exercise.

Butler, A.A., Lord, S.R., Rogers, M.W., and Fitzpatrick, R.C. (2008).
Muscle weakness impairs the proprioceptive control of human standing.
Brain Research. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.03.094

Greenfield, B. (2005). Functional exercise that makes sense.
Ezine Articles.

Hamilton, R.T., Shultz, S.J., Schmitz, R.J.

A Standard Conditioning Program For All Fall Sports

The following is one in an ongoing series of columns shared with permission, by Wayne L. Westcott PhD.
Dr. Westcott
Should all fall sports participants engage in conditioning programs to reduce their risk of injury and improve their athletic performance? The answer is an unqualified yes! Boys and girls? Yes. Strength athletes who play football and endurance athletes who run cross-country? Yes. Ball handling teammates who play soccer and field hockey? Yes.

Without question, all young people who compete in fall sports should perform appropriate exercise programs to enhance their physical fitness. Of course, some of the training procedures will vary based on the demands of the activity. For example, football players should emphasize power exercises such as sprinting, cross-country runners should focus on endurance exercises such as three to five mile runs, and soccer players should include both sprinting and sustained running such as 100 yard dashes and half-mile repeats.

But when it comes to muscle conditioning, I propose that a similar strength training program may be successfully applied to all of the athletes. Oh, there are some differences, such as the number of repetitions completed. Generally speaking, power athletes respond best to lower (4 to 8) repetitions with relatively heavy weightloads, endurance athletes respond best to higher (12 to 16) repetitions with relatively light weightloads, and combination athletes respond best to moderate (8 to 12) repetitions with moderate weightloads.

However, when it comes to the exercise selection all of these athletes should be strong in all of their major muscle groups. Regardless of your sport, there is no advantage in having a weak upper body or a poorly conditioned midsection. Going a step further, training some muscle groups more than others can be a serious disadvantage.

Years ago when I was a university track coach, I determined that sprinters should have powerful quadriceps muscles to explode out of the blocks, and flexible hamstring muscles to prevent hamstring pulls. All winter we strengthened their quadriceps and stretched their hamstrings, and I couldn’t wait to see the results of my specialized conditioning program. As it turned out every single sprinter pulled a hamstring muscle and I was dumbfounded. What had I done wrong?

Simple. I unintentionally promoted a serious imbalance between the sprinters’ opposing muscle groups. You see, a powerfully accelerating quadriceps group must be properly decelerated by a relatively strong hamstrings group. If the hamstrings muscles are significantly weaker they will be overwhelmed by the stronger quadriceps muscles, and injury is inevitable in spite of their flexibility.

So what should I have done to better condition and safeguard my sprinters? Clearly, I should have strengthened all of their major muscle groups, especially their hamstrings and quadriceps. Years later, working with the Notre Dame High School track and cross-country teams, I discovered how well the comprehensive conditioning approach really works. All of the athletes trained all of their major muscle groups, and the result was one injured runner in four years, and four consecutive Massachusetts and New England championship teams.

But why would football players train with the same exercises as cross-country runners or field hockey players? Because they all have the same major muscle groups. Let’s take a look at the major muscles of the body, and the basic free-weight and machine exercises that strengthen these muscle groups.

Major Muscle Groups Recommended
Free Weight Exercises
Recommended
Machine Exercises

Quadriceps (front thigh) Squat Leg Extension
Hamstrings (rear thigh) Squat Leg Curl
Hip Adductors (inner thigh) Hip Adduction
Hip Abductors (outer thigh) Hip Abduction
Pectoralis Major (chest) Bench Press Chest Cross
Latissimus Dorsi (upper back) Pulldown Super Pullover
Deltoids (shoulders) Shoulder Press Lateral Raise
Biceps (front arm) Biceps Curl Biceps Flexion
Triceps (rear arm) Triceps Pressdown Triceps Extension
Erector Spinae (lower back) Trunk Extension Lower Back Extension
Rectus Abdominis (abdominals) Trunk Curl Abdominal Curl
Neck Extensors (rear neck) Neck Extension
Neck Flexors (front neck) Neck Flexion

Many people mistakenly believe that strength training inevitably results in larger muscles and more bodyweight. This is not necessarily true. Strength training produces stronger muscles in all cases, but gains in muscle size and bodyweight are very dependent upon personal genetic factors. For example, most football players have mesomorphic physiques that respond to strength exercise with relatively large changes in muscle size and body weight. On the other hand, most cross-country runners have ectomorphic physiques that respond to strength exercise with relatively small changes in muscle size and body weight. Furthermore, the heavy weightload – low repetition training followed by football players maximizes muscle strength and size, whereas the lower weightload – higher repetition training performed by cross-country runners emphasizes muscle endurance without additional bodyweight.

The main point is that all fall sports participants can benefit from a standard program of strength exercise, and that the results will be specific to each type of athlete. A stronger athlete in any sport is a better athlete, and more importantly, a more injury-resistant athlete. If your fall athletes are not presently performing basic strength exercises, like those presented in the table, you can greatly enhance their sport safety and success by starting a sensible strength training program. Thirty minutes a day, twice a week, is all the time and energy requirements necessary for some significant physical benefits.

 TAKU’s NOTE: Thanks again to my friend Dr Wayne Westcott for sharing his excellent articles with me.

In Season Training

By Mark Asanovich

Contrary to popular opinion, in-season strength training should not be administered as a maintenance program. The goal of the in-season strength program is exactly the same as the off-season program. That is, to develop optimum levels of muscular strength. To develop maximal levels of muscular strength requires maximal levels of intense effort. If a player perceives his goal as merely to maintain his strength level, he will reciprocate with a sub-maximal level of intensity. On the other hand, if the expectation is to get stronger, the player will respond in a manner that will elicit a maximal effort.

Strength training is a use it or lose it reality. From a physiological perspective, nothing is permanent but change, either you are getting better or your not. Therefore it is absolutely essential that what was done in the off-season is replicated during the in-season, the only exception being the frequency of workouts performed. During the in-season program, the player‘s train one to two times per week, whereas during the off-season the player‘s train two to three times per week. Strength training workouts are scheduled on non-consecutive days and not less than 72 hours prior to kickoff. This prevents overtraining and promotes optimal results/recovery by kick-off.

Most teams drop the ball in this respect; they over emphasize the off-season program and under emphasize the in-season program. Obviously, the time constraints of the in-season will dictate when and how much strength training is appropriate. Truth be told, the real measure of any comprehensive strength & conditioning program is what occurs during the season. After all, it is during the season when you want the highest levels of strength to maximize performance potential and minimize injury. Keeping players healthy and on the field is imperative to the success of the team.

The better Arian Foster gets, the more Matt Schaub and the Texans' passing game takes a back seat.

Whereas, many coaches would be satisfied with no improvement (maintenance) during the season, our expectation is to improve strength. In fact, our average in-season gains are what most teams hope for in their off-season programs! Our strength training routines address the five major structures of the body: the neck/trap, lower torso, mid-torso, upper torso, and ankles/arms. We place equal emphasis on all segments of the body since the entire body is involved in playing the game of football and consequently, exposed to injury. Traditionally, athletes have neglected training the neck and shoulder capsule. Certainly, when you consider the potential catastrophic risk to this vulnerable area, it is a priority that needs to be emphasized.

All athletes perform the same workouts regardless of position. A basic workout consists of 12-18 exercises in which one to three exercises are performed for each body part. A workout is generally 60 minutes in length. Larger muscles (chest, back, shoulders, neck/traps, hips/legs) are always trained before smaller muscles (arms, wrists, calves, abdominals). A wide variety of strength training equipment/apparatus is used, with none being more effective than another. Every rep of every set is coached and documented.

The In-Season Strength & Conditioning Program
All players are scheduled for two individualized workouts each week. Players will be scheduled for either a lower torso workout or one total body workout on Monday and one upper torso workout either on Wednesday or Thursday (providing we play on Sunday). Players wanting to train their lower torso twice in any given week will have an opportunity to train Wednesday after practice.

Coach Del Rio and/or the Head Athletic Trainer are the only one‟s to excuse a player from a workout.

NOTE: Practice Squad & Injured Reserve players will be scheduled in for two to three supervised strength-training workouts per week.

All players are expected to arrive in the weight room five minutes early to begin the workout. The digital clock in the weight room is the official clock of record. Being in the building, locker room, training room, bathroom, etc. at an assigned time is still considered being late. Players must be in the weight room, dressed and ready to work. It does not matter if players are one minute late or twenty minutes late – late is late. Since all excuses are good ones and 95% always true, no excuses will be accepted for being late or missing a workout.

MARK ASANOVICH, MA, CSCS, HFI,

recently completed his fifteenth season as a professional football Strength and Conditioning Coach. A fourteen-year National Football League (NFL) veteran, Mr. Asanovich spent six seasons as the Strength and Conditioning Coach for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers under Head Coach Tony Dungy, and has served as Assistant Strength and Conditioning Coach for the Baltimore Ravens and the Minnesota Vikings. His list of Pro Bowlers trained includes Mike Alstott, Derrick Brooks, Chris Carter, Warrick Dunn, Keyshawn Johnson, Ray Lewis, John Lynch, Randall McDaniel, Warren Moon, Jonathan Ogden, John Randle and Warren Sapp, among many others.

TAKU’s NOTE This week we feature another excellent article from Mark Asanovich. Although this article was written about football, the reality is that all athletes should remember that improving is the goal. One should train hard and rest well. This is the secret to getting better.

MMA STRENGTH 101

By TAKU

Performance enhancement is the product of practicing the skills involved in the sport, strengthening the muscles and preparing the appropriate energy systems. This basic strength program for MMA was designed to strengthen the entire body as one functional unit in the safest manner possible thus improving performance and helping to prevent injury.

 

There are a variety of approaches and schools of thought on strength and conditioning, and the methods I recommend are just one approach. I have already developed a basic Combat Sports conditioning program (see TAKU’s Intervals). This article is going to focus only on the “strength” portion of the athletes overall Strength and Conditioning preparation.

Remember, these are recommendations for a basic strength training program for MMA. This approach may at first appear far too simple. However, for most athletes (even those who are considered “advanced) sticking with the basics as a foundation to build from, is usually best. I hope you will give these ideas a try before you dismiss them. I of course encourage athletes and coaches to keep an active mind in determining what works best for them; in other words if it does not seem to work, find out what does and do it.

The best way to truly know what is working is to keep very accurate records of all program variables as well as the athletes response to how these variable are manipulated. Some of the program variables that should be tracked regularly include; volume, frequency, intensity, and duration of training bouts. The athlete’s response to the training variables is tracked by monitoring closely for both physiological and psychological signs of over training* which may include but are not limited to: a decreased eagerness to train, a decrease in performance, a gradual increase in muscular soreness from training session to training session, as well as an increased resting heart rate.

With that being stated, I recommend a low-volume high-intensity approach to strength training for the MMA athlete. The first program I recommend is for an athlete who is in training, but is in an off-season mode; It is an abbreviated training’ method that requires the athlete to perform brief, intense exercises infrequently.

Off-Season Training

Day 1:

Rep cadence = 3-5 seconds up / 3-5 seconds down

Rest = 90 sec between sets

Exercise – Sets – Reps

    1. Squats 3 x 5
    1. 4-Way Neck 2 (each direction.) x 6-10
    1. Bench 3 x 5
    1. Barbell / Machine Row 3 x 5
    1. Barbell / Machine Military Press 3 x 5

Dynamic AB series (2 sets each)

    1. Torture Twist
    1. GHD raise

Day 2: (3-5 days after Day 1)

Rep cadence = 3-5 seconds up / 3-5 seconds down

Rest = 90 sec between sets

    1. Hex Bar / Barbell / Hammer Deadlifts 3 x 5
    1. 4-Way Neck 2 (each direction) x 6-10
    1. Chins or weighted chins 3 x 5
    1. Dips or weighted dips 3 x 5
    1. Curls 3 x 5

Static Abs series: (2 sets each- 30 second timed hold)

    1. Hanging knee / leg raise
    1. Resisted Rotation
    1. Back Extension

The “In-season” program is used for the athlete who is within 6-8 weeks of a fight. This routine is very low-volume, thus allowing for maximal efficiency so that an athlete will be able to maintain strength while allowing time to condition for the demands of an up-coming fight.

Pre-Fight (In Season) Training

Workout 1

Exercise Sets Reps**

    1. Hex Bar / Barbell / Hammer Deadlifts 1 x 5-8
    1. Weighted Dips 1 x 6-10

Static Abs series: (2 sets each- 30 second timed hold)

    1. Hanging knee / leg raise
    1. Resisted Rotation
    1. Back Extension

5-7 Days Later: Workout 2

Exercise Sets Reps

    1. Squats 1 x 8-15
    1. Weighted Chins 1 6-10

Dynamic AB series (2 sets each)

    1. Torture Twist
    1. GHD raise

If the recommended exercise can not be performed due to equipment limitations, contact me for alternatives.

*See my article on over training for more information on this important topic.

**Reps recommended are guidelines however all work sets should be taken to a point of volitional fatigue. If the recommended rep range is far exceeded, increase weight by 5-10% next session.
PAU fir NOW

TAKU

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