Why, When, and Where to buy Organic

Ever wonder why, when, and where to buy organic?

Synthetic pesticides are toxic and can attack our central nervous system.  Studies have shown an even higher risk for pregnant women and children as pesticides can interfere with growth and development.  According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 60 percent of herbicides, 90 percent of fungicides and 30 percent of insecticides are known to be carcinogenic (capable of causing cancer).

In October 2006, the Environmental Working Group published a list of the “Dirty Dozen” or worst offenders when it comes to levels of pesticides detected.  The list is based on studies conducted by the FDA and USDA from 2000-2004.

 

Produce with the HIGHEST level of contamination from pesticides include:

 

  • Peaches
  • Apples
  • Sweet Bell Peppers
  • Celery
  • Nectarines
  • Strawberries
  • Cherries
  • Pears
  • Grapes (imported)
  • Spinach
  • Lettuce
  • Potatoes

Produce with LOWEST level of contamination from pesticides include:

 

  • Onions
  • Avocados
  • Sweet Corn (frozen)
  • Pineapples
  • Mango
  • Asparagus
  • Sweet Peas (frozen)
  • Kiwi Fruit
  • Bananas
  • Cabbage
  • Broccoli
  • Papaya

 

Tips for buying produce:

 

  • Shop Local Farmers Markets: Support your local farmers.  Talk with them.  Many times the farmer is not able to pay the hefty fee for the “USDA Organic” stamp of approval.  Often times the farm follows organic (and sometimes better than organic) standards but is not able to label it as such.
  • Buy in Season: Again, by shopping the farmers market’s, you will only be able to buy in season.  Buying in season ensures you get the maximum nutritional value out of your food, as it has not been sitting around or preserved.  It will taste better too!
  • Join a CSA (Community Supported Agriculture): There are many farms who will provide you fresh, local, seasonal produce delivered to your door or your neighborhood.  Some farms even provide eggs from pasture-raised chickens.  Not only are you supporting your local farmer, but you are also guaranteed to get great quality, freshly picked, seasonal produce at an inexpensive price.
  • Read labels: If you shop in a supermarket, read the sticker or produce sign to see where the produce is coming from.  Ask the produce manager.  Chances are organic produce grown half way around the world will not only taste poor, but not provide the nutritional content you need either. Fruits and vegetables lose nutritional value the longer they sit around from their original harvest date.

TAKU’s NOTE:

This article comes courtesy of: Kristin Hoppe, Certified Natural Chef.

TEMPORARILY CLOSED

Hey there…thanks for stopping by. Due to some family obligations I am temporarily not adding any new content. There are literally hundreds of articles to choose from in my archives, going all the way back to 2008. Please take a moment to look around, I am sure you will find stuff worth exploring.  I’ll be back soon with new content for you to enjoy.

PAU for NOW

TAKU

Simple Steps to Good Nutrition

By TAKU

Nutrition. Is there anything out there that is more confusing? High carbs, low carbs, good fats, bad fats, don’t eat at night, don’t eat anything but fruit until noon…It’s enough to make you scream. How can we possibly decipher all the nutritional mumbo-jumbo that is thrown around every day? Each time you turn around there is a new diet telling you what to eat and what to avoid.

Well, take a deep breath and let’s see if we can make some sense out of all this confusion. By the time your done reading, you’ll have at least a basic set of ideas that should work for you. It still won’t be easy. I have been training people for 25 years and I call nutrition, the ultimate discipline.

Let’s get some basics out of the way. We can break our food into a few basic components. Macro-nutrients (meaning Big stuff) and along with the big stuff we get Micro-nutrients (little stuff). Add water and you have your bases covered.

Foods contain calories in the form of the three Macro-nutrients, Fats, Proteins, and Carbohydrates. These calories provide energy for our bodies to move, grow, repair and maintain themselves. Both Protein and Carbohydrates have four calories per gram. Fat has more then twice as many calories with nine per gram. Foods also contain Micro-nutrients in the form of vitamins and minerals. Micro-nutrients are important because they contribute to the many chemical processes that our bodies undertake for daily living. They do not however provide energy.

When we say energy as it relates to food it just means calories. All food has calories and all calories can be burned to provide energy for the body. When we see something in the store called an “Energy” bar or Energy drink, it really just means that the bar or drink has calories. There is nothing magic about them. Most energy drinks have not only calories in the form of simple sugars but are also loaded with stimulants such as caffeine, guranna (an herbal form of caffeine) or other similar substances. This is where the “energy” comes from in the Zero calorie energy drinks. The above mentioned substances are Central Nervous System stimulants and are providing energy through a series of chemical interactions in the body. If you like to get the buzzed feeling of caffeinated drinks, but don’t like coffee then these types of drinks will do the trick for you. Just remember there are no magic substances in energy bars and drinks that will do anything for you that good, whole food cannot. For the most part these bars and drinks are just glorified candy bars and soda pops and their manufacturers are trying to get you to feel good about eating and drinking them.

I know that nutritional planning is a bit confusing at times. How many meals a day should I eat? Do I need a certain percentage of my daily calories from one source or another? What should I drink and how much is enough? Well, that is what we are here to find out. So let’s set some guidelines that will help us get the most out our nutrition. Keep in mind that what most people lack when it comes to nutrition is discipline and consistency. The following guidelines are not new or magic, they are merely ideas to help you establish a framework from which you may create that disciplined consistency you currently lack.

1. Eat every 2-3 hours, no matter what. You should eat between 4-5 times per day. This does not mean eat giant meals every time you feed; this includes your snacks as well. Think of it more like grazing.

2. Eat some source of lean protein such as eggs, chicken, beef, lamb, turkey and fish, at every meal.

3. Eat fruits and or vegetables with each meal. The more different colors and textures the better.

4. Ensure that your carbohydrate intake comes primarily from fruits and vegetables.

5. Ensure that you get some fats every day. You want these to be primarily in the form of good or “friendly” fats such as those found from olive, flax seed and coconut oils, avocados, raw nuts and seeds, as well as fish like salmon, mackerel, sardines anchovy’s etc.

6. Drink primarily non-calorie containing beverages, the best choices being water and green tea. A good goal for water intake is about half your body weight in ounces a day. So, if you weigh 100 pounds, aim for 50 ounces a day and if you weigh 200, pounds aim for 100 ounces a day. (The rest of you can do your own math).

7. Eat mostly whole foods. This means foods found in their most natural state. There is no such thing as a donut tree and contrary to popular belief; nothing made out of flour (like bread, pasta and bagels) is a source of complex carbohydrates.

8. When you get off track, regroup quickly. Having one bad meal or snack here and there will not have a large impact on your overall success. What does negatively impact you is the snow ball effect. That common feeling of “well I screwed up lunch so I guess the whole day is shot”. Forget that stuff. Your next feeding is your next opportunity for success.

So what does this type of eating look like? Here is a simple way to think about it. To create a healthy plate meal, simply view your plate like a clock. Fill the position of 12 o’clock to 6 o’clock with colorful fruits and vegetables; fill the space from 6 o’clock to 9 o’clock with carbohydrates like yams or sweet potatoes, and fill the area from 9 to 12 o’clock with lean protein  in the form of beef, chicken fish and so on.

Most of the time if you stick with just two sections, the fruit and veggie section and the protein section you’ll be doing just fine. If you do include starches, for best results don’t let that starch section get any bigger then about ¼ of your plate.

So, don’t I need to know how many calories I am eating and how much fat etc? The answer is yes and no. For the greatest long term success I would recommend taking a few days and figuring this stuff out. Working with a good nutrition coach can really help. The most important thing however is that you just start making some good simple choices right away. I think you’ll find that when you do, the rest starts to take care of itself.

Here is what a day of this type of eating might look like:

(I’ve included a few examples for breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks)

Meal Examples

Breakfast:

1. Scrambled Eggs and Fruit. 1 whole egg. 2-3 egg whites. Tomato, peppers onions etc (your choice). 1 large orange.

2. Cottage Cheese and Fruit. 1-cup cottage cheese (low fat or non-fat). 2 cups Fresh or water packed Pineapple or Peaches. I Tbsp Almonds (raw).

3. Protein Shake. 2 scoops Protein Powder. 1 cup Strawberries, fresh or frozen. 2/3 cup peaches, fresh or frozen. 1-2 cups water. 1 -1/2 Tbsp Almonds or flax-seed oil

Lunch:

1. Tuna salad. 4-6 oz of Albacore Tuna in water (drained). 1-2 Tbsp of sweet pickle relish (optional). 3-5 Tbsp of celery (diced). 15-20 seedless grapes. 1-1/2 Tbsp Mayo (homemade or safflower). 2-4 lettuce leaves. 1 large apple.

2. Chicken Caesar salad. Romaine lettuce (3-4 cups). Chicken precooked and cooled (4 oz). Parmesan cheese 1 Tbsp (grated). Caesar dressing (2 Tbsp).*

3. Cantaloupe Fruit Salad. ½ of a melon. I cup cottage cheese (low fat or non-fat). 5-10 seedless Grapes. ½ cup sliced Strawberries. 2 tsp Sunflower seeds.

Dinner:

1. Chicken salad. 4-6 oz chicken. 2 tbsp walnuts. 1 apple chopped. 1-cup grapes (cut in halves). 2 tbsp mayo (safflower or home made). 1-cup green beans.

2. Grilled Salmon and Vegetables. Salmon steak grilled (4-1/2 oz). Onions sweet large size (3 thick slices). ½ green pepper (sliced). 1 zucchini (sliced). Green salad (2 cups). I cup Peaches, fresh or frozen for desert.

3. Beef Tenderloin Dinner. 6 oz extra lean beef. Asparagus spears (10 – steamed). 3-4 cups green salad with tomato. Fresh fruit for dessert.

Snacks:

1. Cottage cheese with Pineapple. 1-Cup cottage cheese w/ 1-cup pineapple.

2. Hard-boiled Egg and Fruit. 1 whole egg. 1 egg white. 1 tangerine or orange.

3. String Cheese and fruit. 1-2 string cheese. 1 apple.

If you are serious about your health, you should be serious about your nutrition. Our health comes from the inside out. Feed your body good food, drink water and get enough sleep every day and you have gone a long way to insuring optimal health and high function for years to come. When we eat well it supports everything else we do. It makes it that much more likely, that you will achieve your athletic and aesthetic goals as well as perform at your best in the boardroom or on the mat. Remember, every time you go food shopping is a chance for you to make great choices. Now get out there and get to it.

Bonus Food Shopping List:

Protein

Fish:

• Salmon

• Tuna

• Cod

• Trout

• Halibut

• Shrimp

• Scallops

Eggs

Chicken breasts

Cottage cheese

Lean Red Meat:

• Flank Steak

• Ground Beef

• Top Round Cuts

Carbohydrates

Vegetables (not limited to):

• Broccoli

• Green Beans

• Spinach

• Lettuce

Mixed Beans

Carbohydrates

Fruits (not limited to):

• Berries

• Apples

• Oranges

• Kiwi

• Grapefruits

Carbohydrates
Grains & Starches

Oatmeal/Oat bran

Sprouted Flour-less Mixed-grain bread

Brown Rice

Quinoa

Sweet Potatoes

Millet

Fats

Flax oil/Flax meal

Fish oil (EPA / DHA)

Olive oil / Olives

Mixed nuts:

• Almonds

• Walnuts

• Brazil

• Pistachios

Avocados

Coconut Oil

Butter (occasionally)

Macro Nutrient Servings:

Fruit. 1 serving =

1 medium sized fruit, ½ banana, 1-cup berries, ¼-cup dried fruit. 1-cup melon.

Veggies. 1 serving =

½ cup cooked or raw, 1 cup leafy.

Protein. 1 serving =

4-5 oz fish, poultry, pork or lean beef. 1-cup tofu, 1-cup cottage cheese.

Starchy Carbs. 1 serving =

½ cup cooked rice, pasta or grains, ½ cup cooked cereal.

BONUS RECIPE:

*Caesar Dressing:

• 1 Tbsp Olive Oil

• 1 Tbsp Red Wine Vinegar

• ½ Tbsp Lemon juice

• 1-2 cloves garlic, pressed

• ½ tsp Worcestershire sauce

• ½ tsp anchovy paste

• ½ tsp dry mustard

• ½ tsp fresh ground pepper

Place all ingredients in a jar and shake until blended.

 

PAU for NOW

TAKU

Tips for the Personal Trainer

By Jim Bryan 

When you have been in the fitness business as long as I have you have seen just about everything (good & bad). When I first started in the field, personal training was a very rare thing. Now, 25 years later, Personal Fitness Training is big business. More and more people are becoming trainers every day, many with little to no experience other than their two year subscription to Men’s Health, and a weekend certification course.

Many new trainers get lost in the minutia of exercise selection and trying to look cool by using the latest “sexy” exercise trend as well tossing around the newest pseudo-scientific jargon in an attempt to razzle-dazzle the perspective client into spending their hard earned money.

Something that often get’s lost these days is that Personal Training is supposed to be well… personal. Below are some tips from my friend Jim Bryan that will help the aspiring trainer to deliver a world class experience for their clients, every time.

1. Pay attention to your Clients.


2. Hang up the cell phone during your sessions.


3. Track Clients progress regularly.


4. Stop looking at yourself in the mirror.


5. Think safety. “First do no harm.”


6. Don’t try to use “complex movements” you don’t know how to do.


7. A weekend “seminar” in the Olympic or Quick Lifts, does not qualify you as an Olympic Lifting coach.


8. Olympic Lifts were not meant to be done for high reps, with poor form, to the point of fatigue.


9. Tire flipping isn’t beneficial for all clients. Learn to discern.


10. Tried and true exercises, and methods should be your first choice.


11. Machines or free weights? Why not either or both? Each has advantages and disadvantages. Learn them.


12. Don’t put clients on a diet unless you are a Registered Dietitian.


13. Learn to spot fads and gimmicks and pass on them.


14. Dress in a professional manner, and conduct yourself that way also.

TAKU’s NOTE: Thanks to my good friend Jim Bryan for sharing some valuable tips for personal trainers.

Low Carb Dieting (the truth): Part 2

The body derives it’s energy from four key fuels:

1) glucose

2) proteins

3) free fatty acids

4) ketones

The primary determinant of the fuel utilized is the availability of carbohydrate.The body has three storage units that can be utilized during times of calorie deprivation:

1) Carbohydrate, which is stored in liver and the muscles

2) Protein, which can be converted to glucose in the liver

3) Fat, which is stored primarily in adipose tissue.

Under specific conditions a fourth fuel comes into play -ketones which are derived from the incomplete breakdown of free fatty acids. Under normal dietary conditions ketones play a minimal role in energy prodcition. During times of Low carb dieting or starvation diets ketones impact energy production significantly.

When looking at storage of bodily fuels triglyceride is the most abundant. Carrbohydrate stiores are minimal compared to protein and fat. Although stored protein could possibly fuel the body longer than stored carbohydrates too much reliance and protein for energy could result in death. The average person has enough body fat to live for months without food. There are numerous documented cases where morbidly obese patients were fasted for up to one year.

In gereral the body utilizes the fuel that is most abundant in the bloodstream. As an example when glucose elevates in the bloodstream the body will utilize mostly glucose. When glucose levels begin to lower the body uses less glucose. When decreasing carbohydrate availability the body begins a metabolic shift resulting in a higher dpendence on fat for energy.

Many trainees like to point to the fact that a high carb diet is protein sparing. Keep in mind while a high carb diet is protein sparing it is also fat sparing. High levels of carbohydrates decrease the use of fat for fuel.

In the initial days of fasting prtein is converted to glucose. This is where some people formed the idea that low carb diets were muscle wasting. With an adequate amount of protein intake these muscle wasting effects can be minimized in the early stages of the diet. As the body becomes ketogenic protein is spared.

Most tissues of the body can use FFA for fuel. Although, there are tissues that cannot utilize FFA for fuel including brain, red blood cells, renal medulla, bone marrow and type 2 muscle fibers. One of the biggest mis-conceptions about human physiology is the belief that the brain can only run on glucose. Under normal dietary conditions the brain primarily functions by using glucose, but under conditions of ketosis the brain can run efficiently by using ketone bodies. Arguably the most important tissue in terms of ketone body usage is the brain which can derive up to 75% of it’s energy requirements from ketone bodies once adaptation occurs. Other research indicates that ketone bodies are the preferred fuel of many tissues. One exception is the liver which does not use ketones for fuel, but relies on FFA.

There are several factors which influence the fuel used by the body.

Factors influence fuel utilization

1. Amount of each nutrient being consumed

2. Level of hormones such as insulin and glucagon

3. Bodily stores of each nutrient

4. Levels of regulatory enzymes for glucose and fat breakdown

Amount of nutrient being consumed

There are four substances that we dervie calories from. These include:

1) carbohydrate

2) protein

3) fats

4) alcohol

Generally speaking, the body utilizes glucose in direct proportion to the amount of carbohydrate being consumed. If carb intake increases the bodies utilization increases and vice-versa.

When protein intake increases protein oxidation will also increase to a degree. If protein intake drops the body will use less protein for fuel. The body attempts to maintain body protein at constant levels.

The amount of dietary fat being consumed does not significantly increase the amount of fat used for fuel by the body. Fat burning is determined indirectly by alcohol and carbohydrate consumption. The consumption of alcohol will almost completely inhibit the bodies ability to burn fat for fuel. The greatest rates of fat oxidation will occur when carbohydrates and alcohol are limited. Levels of muscle glycogen also regulate how much fat is used by the muscle.

HORMONES

Insulin’s primary role is to keep blood glucose in a range of 80-120 mg/dl. When blood glucose raises above 120 the pancreas releases insulin to lower blood glucose. The greatest increase of blood glucose come after the consumption of carbohydrate (different types have differing effects). Protein causes a smaller increase in insulin output because some individual amino acids can be converted to glucose. FFAs and ketones can also stimulate an insulin response, but the response is a great deal less than that which comes from the consumption of protein or carbs.

As blood glucose drops insulin levels decrease as well. With the decrease in insulin the body begins to break down stored fuels. Fat cells are broken down into glycerol and FFAs and released into the bloodstream. Proteins are broken down into individual amino acids and glycogen stored in the liver is broken down into glucose and released into the bloodstream.

Glucagon is a hormone released from the pancreas that acts to control blood glucose as well. Glucagon acts to raise blood glucose when it drops below normal. Glucagon’s main action is in the liver as it breaks down liver glycogen and releases it into the blood stream. Glucagon also plays an important role in ketone body formation in the liver. Glucagon released is stimulated by exercise, decreasing blood glucose and insulin and protein consumption. Elevated levels of insulin inhibut the pancreas from releasing glucagon

From the information provided above it is apparent that insulin and glucagon play antagonist roles to one another. Insulin is primarly a storage hormone: while glucagons’s primary role is to moblilze fuel stores for use by the body.

Growth hormone is another hormone which has numerous effects on the body. GH is released in response to exercise, a decrease in blood glucose, and carb restriction or fasting. GH is a growth promoting hormone increasing protein synthesis in the muscle and liver. GH also acts as a FFA mobilizer.

Most of the anabolic effects of GH are mediated through a class of hormones called insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). IGF-1 is the key contributor to anabolic growth in most of the bodies tissues. GH stimulates the liver to produce IGF-1 but only in the presence of insulin. High GH levels in combination with high insulin levels (protein carb meal) will raise IGF-1 levels increasing anabolic reactions in the body. On the other end high GH levels with low insulin levels will not cause and increase in IGF-1 levels.

The thyroid gland produces two hormones, thyroxine (T4), and triidothyronine (T3). In the human body T4 is primarily a storage form of T3 and plays few physiological roles itself. Thyroid hormones can have an effect on all tissues of the body. Chronically low carb intake can significantly lower thyroid hormone.

Cortisol is a catabolic hormone released by the adrenal glands. Cortisol is involved in gluconeogenesis as well as fat breakdown. Cortisol is required for life but excessive amounts can be detrimental to health causing protein breakdown, bone tissue degradation, immune system impairment, connective tissue and skin weakening.

Adrenaline and noradrenaline (epinephrine and norepinephrine) are released from the adrenal glands and are frequently referred to as fight or flight hormones. These hormones are generally released in response to cold, exercise, or fasting. Epinephrine is released from the adrenal medulla, while nor epinephrine is released primarily from the nerve terminals. The primary role the adrenal hormones adrenaline and nor – adrenaline play in the ketogenic diet is to stimulate free fatty acid release from fat cells.

In humans, insulin and adrenaline and nor-adrenaline have the most profound effect on fat mobilization. In general, insulin acts as storage hormone while adrenaline and nor-adrenaline stimulate fat breakdown.

LIVER GLYCOGEN

All foods coming through the digestive tract are processed initially in the liver. In general, liver glycogen is the key determinant of the body’s tendency to store or breakdown nutrients. There is a direct correlation between liver glycogen levels and bodyfat levels. High levels of liver glycogen are usually related to higher bodyfat levels.

The liver serves as a storehouse for glycogen. Liver glycogen is broken down in response to glucagon and released into the bloodstream. When liver glycogen is full the body is generally in an anabolic state. Incoming nutrients are stored as glycogen, proteins, and triglycerides. This is sometimes called the fed state.

When liver glycogne is depleted the liver shifts roles and becomes catabolic. Glycogen is broken down into glucose, protein is broken down into amino acids, and triglycerides are broken down into FFA’s. This is often referred to as the fasted state.

Ketogenesis will occur when liver glycogen is depleted, blood glucose drops, and the insulin/glucagon ratio shifts.

ENZYME LEVELS

Enzyme levels are primarily determined by the nutrients being ingested in the diet and the hormonal levels that result from the ingestion. When carb intake is high and glucose and glycogen storage is stimulated the enzymes involved in fat breakdown are inhibited. On the other hand when insulin drops the enzymes involved with glucose use are inhibited and the enzymes involved in fat breakdown will increase.

Relevant research in regards to ketogenic dieting

A comparative study of two diets in the treatment of primary exogenous obesity in children

Pena L, Pena M, Gonzalez J, Claro A,

One hundred and four children, ages six to fourteen with exogenous obesity were subjected to two different diets, Ketogenic (low carb) and hypocaloric, for eight weeks.Body weight, serum triglycereides, cholesterol, glucose tolerance test, blood glucose, and plasma insulin determination were measured before and after diets. The results revealed significant differences in bodywt, and triglyceride concentration, with both diets. There were significant differences in the fasting insulin levels, insulinogenic index, and insulin concentration after a glucose tolerance test in the patients treated with a KD diet.

LOW CARB DIETING (THE TRUTH)

SEMINAR BY JAMIE HALE

AUG 20TH FITNESS ZONE LEXINGTON KY

© 2006-2009 HybridFitness.tv. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction without permission prohibited.

Low Carb Dieting (the truth): Part 1

Almost everyone knows someone who has used a low carb diet. They have used it themselves had a friend use it or are getting ready to use it . Are these diets magic? Are they safe? Can I really eat all of the cheese and meat I want ? Will I die if I go into ketosis?

These are just a few common questions I hear in regards to questions that concern low carb diets. In this series of articles I will present readers with scientific facts and my practical observations for implications concerning low carb diets. Some low carb supporters will not like what I will have to say. Some low carb haters will not like what I have to say. The objective of these articles are to educate readers on the practical implications of low carb dieting. Some will be offended and some will say how can that be. Either way sit back and enjoy as I attempt to shed light on the highly talked about topic – low carb diets (ketogenic diets)

I have provided a brief overview of some the topics that will be discussed in this series of articles.

1. What type of changes occur while using low carb diets

2. Do low carb diets make me mean

3. Do low carb diets spare muscle

4. Can I gain weight on a low carb diet

5. How much weight can I expect to lose

6. Can this diet help my medical condition

7. Different types of low carb diets

8. Why you need to cycle higher days of carbs

9. Who needs low carb diets

10. Are they safe for children

11. Are they beneficial for athletes

The topics mentioned above are just a few that will be addressed in Low Carb Dieting.

Before we move any further let me introduce the word ketogenic. Must of you reading this article are probably familiar with the world as it implies low carb or restriction of carb intake. Simply put for our purposes the words ketogenic and low carb are synonymous. A couple of other comments I would like to make before we move on. This comment is for Low Carb supporters that swear of all vegetables and fruits. Get on medline.com and do some research. Go to the library and look through some journals. A complete diet for long term use needs to incorporate greens and some fruits to be healthy. A short term diet devoid of fruits and vegetables might not be that bad, but rejecting greens and any fruits for life is a bad idea.

This comment is for the low carb haters. One of the number one reasons most of America is fat is because of chronically high insulin levels. Which is primarily contributed to excessive carb intake. Don’t get me wrong I am not blaming high carbohydrate intake on all of our obesity problems. I should probably say excessive and the wrong types of carbohydrate at the wrong times are the problem. At the same time the answer is not to eat all of the saturated fat we can find : which can contribute to insulin insensitivity, elevated TG’s, increased lipogenesis and digestive problems.

What is a ketogenic diet? A diet that causes ketone bodies to be produced by the liver, and shifts the body’s metabolism away from glucose in favor of fat burning. A ketogenic diet restricts carbohydrates below a certain level (generally 100 per day). The ultimate determinant of whether a diet is ketogenic or not is the presence or absence of carbohydrate. Protein and fat intake vary. Contrary to poplar belief eating fat is not what causes ketosis. In the past starvation diets were used often to induce ketosis. I will repeat myself again and say lack of carbohydrate or presence of ultimately determines if the diet is ketogenic.

In most eating plans the body runs on a mixture of protein, fats and carbohydrates. When carbohydrates are severely restricted and glycogen storage (glucose in muscle and liver) is depleted the body begins to utilize other means to provide energy. FFA (free fatty acids) can be used to provide energy, but the brain and nervous system are unable to use FFA’s. Although the brain can use ketone bodies for energy.

Ketone bodies are by products of incomplete FFA breakdown in the liver. Once they begin to accumulate fast and reach a certain level they are released , accumulated in the bloodstream and cause a state called ketosis. As this occurs there is a decrease in glucose production and utilization. There is also less reliance on protein to meet energy requirements by the body. Ketogenic diets are often referred to as protein sparing as they help to spare LBM whiled dropping body fat.

In regards to ketogenic diets there are two primary hormones- insulin, glucagon that need to be considered. Insulin can be described as a storage hormone as it’s job is to take nutrients out of the bloodstream and carry them to target tissues. Insulin carries glucose from the blood to the liver and muscles, and it carries FFA from the blood into adipose tissue (stored fat triglyceride). On the other hand glucagon breaks down glycogen stores (especially in the liver) and releases them into the blood.

When carbs are restricted or removed insulin levels drop while glucagon levels rise. This causes enhanced FFA release from fat cells, and increased FFA burning in the liver. This accelerated burning of FFA in the liver is what leads to ketosis. There are a number of other hormones involved with this process as well.

In general we refer to three different types of ketogenic diets.

1. STANDARD KETOGENIC DIET- A diet containing l00 or less grams of carbohydrates is referred to as STANDARD KETOGENIC DIET

2. TARGETED KETOGENIC DIET- consuming carbohydrates around exercise, to sustain performance without affecting ketosis.

3. CYCLICAL KETOGENIC DIET- alternates periods of ketogenic dieting with periods of high carbohydrate intake

The Beginning of Ketogenic diets

Originally ketogenic diets were used to treat obesity and epilepsy. In general ketogenic diets are similar to starvation diets in the responses that occur in the body. More specifically these two states can be referred to as starvation ketosis and dietary ketosis. These similarities have led to the development of modern day ketogenic diets.

Ketogenic dieting has been used for years in the treatment of childhood epilepsy. In the early 1900’s times of total fasting was used to treat seizures. This caused numerous health problems and could not be sustained indefinitely.

Due to the impracticalities and health problems occurring with starvation ketogenic diets researchers began to look for a way to mimic starvation ketosis while consuming food. They determined that a diet consisting of high fat, low carb and minimal protein could sustain growth and maintain ketosis for a long period of time. This led to the birth of the original ketogenic diet in 1921 by Dr. Wilder. Dr Wilder’s diet controlled pediatric epilepsy in many cases where drugs and other treatments failed.

New epilepsy drugs were invented during the 30’s, 40’s and 50’s and ketogenic diets fell to the wayside. These new drugs lead to almost disappearance of ketogenic diets during this time. A few modified ketogenic diets were tried during this time such as the MCT (medium chain triglycerides) diets, but they were not welly accepted.

In 1994 the ketogenic diet as a treatment for epilepsy was re-discovered. This came about in the story of Charlie a 2yr old with seizures that could not be controlled with medications or other treatment including brain surgery. Charlie’s father had found reference to the diet through his research and ended up at Johns Hopkins medical center.

Charlie’s seizures were completely controlled as long as he was on the diet. The huge success of the diet prompted Charlie’s father to start the Charlie foundation. The foundation has produced several videos, and published the book The Epilepsy Diet Treatment: An Introduction to the Ketogenic diet. The foundation has sponsored conferences to train physicians and dietitians to implement the diet. The exact mechanisms of how the ketogenic diet works to control epilepsy are still unknown, the diet continues to gain acceptance as an alternative to drug therapy.

Obesity

Ketogenic diets have been used for at least a century for weight loss. Complete starvation was studied often including the research of Hill, who fasted a subject for 60 days to examine the effects. The effects of starvation were very successful in regards to treatment of the morbidly obese as rapid weight loss occurred. Other characteristics attributed to ketosis, such as appetite suppression and sense of well being, made fasting even more attractive for weight loss. Extremely obese patients have been fasted for up to one year and given nothing but vitamins and minerals. The major problem with complete starvation diets is the loss of body protein, primarily from muscle tissue. Protein losses decrease as starvation continues, but up to one half of the total weight loss can be contributed to muscle and water loss. In the early 1970’s Protein Sparing Modified Fasts were introduced. These diets allowed the benefits of ketosis to continue while preventing losses of bodily proteins. They are still used today under medical supervision In the early 70’s Dr. Atkins introduced Dr. Atkins Diet Revolution With millions of copies Sold the diet generated a great deal of interest. Dr. Atkins suggested a diet limited in carbohydrate but unlimited in protein and fat. He promoted the diet as it would allow rapid weight loss, no hunger and unlimited amounts of protein and fat. He offered just enough research to allow the diet recognition. Although most of the evidence supporting the diet was questionable. During the 1980’s Michael Zumpano and Dan Duchaine introduced two of the earliest CKD’s THE REBOUND DIET for muscle gain and then the modified version called THE ULTIMATE DIET for fat loss. Neither diet became very popular. This was likely due to the difficulty of the diet and the taboo of eating high fat. In the early 90’s Dr. Dipasquale introduced the ANABOLIC DIET . This diet promoted 5 days of high- fat-high protein-low carb consumption while eating high carbs and virtually anything you wanted for two days. The diet was proposed to induce a metabolic shift within the five days of eating low carbs (30 or less). The metabolic shift occurred as your body switched from being a sugar burning machine to a fat-burning machine. A few years later Dan Duchaine released the book UNDERGROUND BODYOPUS: MILITIANT WEIGHT LOSS AND RECOMPOSITION . The book included his CKD diet which he called BODY OPUS. The diet was more specified than the Anabolic Diet and gave exercise recommendations as well as the basics concerning exercise physiology. Most bodybuilders found the diet very hard to follow. The carb load phase required eating every 2 hrs and certain foods were prescribed. I personally loved the book, but felt the difficulty of the diet made it less popular. In this author’s opinion Ducahine’s book is a must read for anyone interested in Nutrition. Ketogenic Diets have been used for years to treat specific conditions such as obesity and childhood epilepsy. The effects of these diets have proven beneficial in a number of these well documented cases, but for some reason when we mention any type of low carb diet (ketogenic diet) people begin to tell us about how their doctor or friend told them it would kill them or how that diet was shown to damage the liver or kidneys. Keep in mind epileptic children have been in ketosis for up to three years and shown no negative effects; quiet the opposite. The weight loss in morbidly obese patients has been tremendous and the health benefits numerous. Maybe before coming to the conclusion that all types of ketogenic diets are bad other factors need to be considered such as activity levels, type of ketogenic diet, length of ketogenic diet, past eating experience, purpose of ketogeninc diet, individual body type and response to various eating plans, current physical condition, and quality of food while following ketogenic diet. As you can see there are numerous factors that come into play when saying a diet is good or bad. I think people should take the time look at the research and speak with various authorities in regards to low carb diets before drawing conclusions from the they says.

Relevant research in regards to ketogenic dieting

Efficacy and safety of the ketogenic diet for intractable childhood epilepsy: Korea multi-centric experience

Chul Kang H, Joo Kim Y, Wook Kim D, Dong Kim H,

Dept of pediatrics, Epilepsy center, Inje Univ Coll of Med, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul Korea

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the safety of the ketogenic diet, and to evaluate the prognosis of the patients after successful discontinuation of the diet in infants, children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy. The study looked at patients who had been treated with KD during 1995 through 2003 at Korean multicenters. The outcomes of the 199 patients enrolled in the study at 6 and 12 months were as follows: 68% and 46% of patients remained on the diet, 58% and 41% showed a reduction in seizures, including 33% and 25% who became seizure free. The complications were mild during the study, but 5 patients died during the KD. No significant variables were related to the efficacy, but those with symptomatic and partial epilepsies showed more frequent relapse after completion of the diet. The researchers concluded the KD is a safe and effective alternative therapy for intractable epilepsy in Korea, although the customary diet contains substantially less fat than traditional Western diets, but life-threatening complications should be monitored closely during follow up.

Reference

McDonald, L (1998) The Ketogenic Diet. Lyle McDonald.

Copyright 2005 Jamie Hale

LOW CARB DIETING (THE TRUTH)

SEMINAR conducted by Jamie Hale

Date- Aug 20th Location-Fitness Zone Lexington Ky

© 2006-2009 HybridFitness.tv. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction without permission prohibited.

Cyclical Ketogenic Diet: Low-carb Dieting Made Easy

This P.E.P. is based on the work of Dan Duchaine (Body Opus) and Lyle McDonald (the Ketogenic Diet). The version that I am presenting is a highly simplified version of the original Duchaine / McDonald works as laid out in their above named books. If you wish to attain copious amounts of detail into how to really tweak this approach I suggest you purchase one or both of the books written by these two gentlemen. Although their approach is reliable, I am confident that similarly consistent results will be attained without following some of the extreme guidelines set forth by these two authors.

With my personal experimentation using this approach I have found it to consistently reduce BFP% while maintaining LBM. Below I have shown examples of weekday and weekend eating plans consistent with this style of P.E.P. The basic premise is to reduce Carb consumption to as low a level as possible during a five-day period Mon-Fri. Then take in high carbs on the weekend to facilitate glycogen super-compensation and the sparing of LBM. My weekday goal for carb consumption is 30 grams or less a day. On weekends the carb consumption is unlimited and should be as high as is comfortably possible. Once you feel you have fully re-loaded your carb stores (usually indicated by an increase in water retention), you may begin to de-carb once again.

WEEKDAY MACRONUTRIENT GOALS:

The goal for protein consumption is a minimum of 1 gram per pound of total body-weight, with a maximum of up to 1.5 grams per pound of total body-weight. The calorie level should be set at approximately 90% of daily maintenance levels*. Once protein levels have been established, the remainder of the calories should come from “friendly” fat sources and a minimum of low glycemic carbs (as indicated in the eating plans below). When trying to make up the proper calorie levels start with protein. Then add the “good” fat, + bad fat, then finish with the LGC.

WEEKEND MACRONUTRIENT GOALS:

Protein consumption should be set at a minimum of 1 gram per pound of LBM with a maximum of up to 1 gram per pound of total weight. Carbs should be set as high as 3-5 grams per pound of total body weight. Fat should be set at a maximum of 1 gram per every 2 pounds of total body weight.

SUGGESTED EATING AND TAPER PLANS

You may notice an energy slump in the first couple of weeks, this is normal and is the interim period between your body burning carbohydrate for energy and converting to burning fat. Stick with it and you will achieve your goals.

The program is a 5-days on 2-days off schedule, the days off may be fitted in at your convenience but weekends are probably best.

Suggested eating plan No1

Meal 1.

4 eggs any way, or 6-10 egg whites, 2 slices of ham, 2 Oz l/f. Mozzarella cheese. Make into omelet, if desired add chopped veggies

Meal 2.

Small tin of tuna (6 Oz) in oil (drain oil), ¼ avocado, salad or 2-3 scoops Whey Protein + 1 Tbsp Flax Oil in 10 Oz water

Meal 3.

Chicken breast w/- veggies &/or salad (stir-fry) & ¼ avocado

Meal 4.

Handful of nuts or 3-4 Oz meat (ham, turkey etc) & 2 piece string cheese Or protein drink as above

Meal 5.

Steak (8 Oz) with veggies, salad & ¼ avocado

Drink tea, coffee, or water. (If not using the ECA stack** then a load of brewed coffee is best)

Use artificial sweeteners to sweeten protein drinks & hot beverages only if you feel it is required. (I do not recommend artificial sweeteners)

Absolutely no fruit or sugar sources outside the weekend.

Suggested eating plan No. 2

Meal 1.

(6-10) Egg white omelet w/- mushrooms, tomato, l/f cheese, onions etc and tea, coffee or water.

Meal 2.

Chef salad w/- ham, cheese & egg. Or handful of raw nuts & cheese

Meal 3.

Chicken Caesar, Cobb, or Spinach and bacon salad etc w/- (no croutons)

Meal 4.

4 eggs, 4 strips bacon (or ham, Canadian bacon, sausage etc)

Meal 5.

Salmon (6-8 Oz) grilled, poached or baked with veggies, salad & ¼ avocado.

Meal 6.

(Optional, use only during transition phase if you are really craving sweets), nonfat yogurt, whey protein (1 scoop), flax oil 1 Tbsp (mix together as pudding)

Note: For the best results I recommend you stick as close as possible to the weekly examples I have provided. It is really not hard once you get into a groove.

The taper in.

In order for the transition to this P.E.P. to be smooth and relatively discomfort free, a lead in period of gradual carb reduction is suggested. This is a fairly simple process, as follows;

Week 1. P.E.P. only on Tuesday & Thursday.

Week 2. P.E.P. on Monday, Wednesday & Friday.

Week 3. P.E.P. every day except Wednesday.

Week 4. P.E.P. Monday to Friday.

This should see you make a smooth, pain free transition into the amazing world of fat burning.

During a 48 hr period on Saturday & Sunday basically eat what you feel like, try to keep it fairly healthy but succumb to your cravings because Monday you get strict again.

EXAMPLE OF WEEKEND EATING PLAN:

Meal 1.

Non-fat milk (8 Oz), Oatmeal (8 Oz cooked), 3 egg whites (stirred into oatmeal), 5 dates (chopped & stirred into oatmeal)

Meal 2.

“Power Shake” 8 Oz Non-fat milk, 8 Oz Non-fat yogurt, 1 Banana (mix in blender)

Meal 3.

Roasted chicken (6 Oz), rice (1 cup), beans (6 Oz), Sherbet (3 scoops)

Meal 4.

Cottage cheese (1 cup), Pears (canned in own juice) 4 halves

Meal 5.

Peanut butter sandwich 1 Tbsp p-nut-butter + 1 Tbsp jelly on sprouted (flour-less) bread, Non-fat milk (1 cup) 1 Banana

Meal 6.

Tuna sandwich (tuna packed in water) on sprouted (flour-less) bread, 1 apple, handful of nuts (your favorite)

Meal 7.

“Power Shake” 8 Oz Non-fat milk, 8 Oz Non-fat yogurt, 1 Banana (mix in blender)

When trying to maximize strength, size and power, I load creatine on the weekends (5 grams with every meal). You may of course add whatever supplements you currently feel are beneficial to you reaching your health goals.

LBM = Lean Body Mass

BFP% = Body Fat Percentage

LGC = Low Glycemic Carb

P.E.P. = Personal Eating Plan

**ECA STACK = Ephedrine, Caffeine, Aspirin combined to elicit a Central nervous system stimulus which aids in fatty acid mobilization as well as increasing mental focus, suppressing appetite and may also aid in the increase of workout intensity.

If you have never experimented with this “stack” do so cautiously. I suggest using a mainstream brand such as “Ripped Fuel” by Twinlab etc. Start with less then the suggested dose and work up from there. I use one dose a day Mon-Thu when on this plan. If you do choose to use it, do not take it Friday-Sunday as it may interfere with the carb loading process. It is not required that you use the ECA stack to achieve success on this plan I mention it, only FYI.

*Lowering calories further during the weekdays can speed up weight loss but will increase the challenge and potential discomfort during this phase of the eating plan.

Supplement recommendations and all other aspects of this article are intended for informational purposes only. Consult with your primary care physician before experimenting with the CKD or any other P.E.P.

PAU for NOW

TAKU
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